Bangladeshis a country in South Asia officially People’s Republic of Bangladesh . It is next to the North-east India, which converges with Southeast Asia to the east. The capital and the largest city is Dhaka. Bangladesh is surrounded on all three sides by the India, and a small border strip with Myanmar on the south-eastern corner, the neighbor countries are China, Bhutan, Sikkim and Nepal. after a bloody war in which over a million people died it becomes independence in 1971 from Pakistan. Later by Indian military intervention, by that time the provisional government went into exile in Calcutta, Bengal (India) which they considered their homeland to be under Pakistani military occupation. After the Instrument of Surrender, the Bengali peoples became a sovereign nation and when its founder was released from political imprisonment had returned in 1972. Present-day Bangladesh has an area of 55,049 mi² or (142,576 km²). It is slightly smaller than comparison to the U.S. state of Iowa or the Indian state of Orissa which are similar in their geographical sizes to Bangladesh region. The local currency is called Taka. The official language is Bengali.
Bangladesh is divided into eight administrative divisions : Barisal , Chittagong , Dhaka , Khulna, Rajshahi , Sylhet and Rangpur.Divisions are divided into districts. There are 64 districts in Bangladesh.Other major cities include Chittagong, Khulna, Rajshahi, Sylhet, Barisal, Bogra, Comilla, Mymensingh and Rangpur.
The 20th century brought more wars, genocide, and political states. Bengal was under British rule from 1757–1947. It was a part of British India. In 1947 East Bengal and the Dominion of Pakistan were separated from present-day of India and thus formed a new birth of country named Pakistan. But the east and west provinces were on either side of India and separated by 930 miles (1,500 km). In 1949 the Bangladesh Awami League formed to favor separation between east and west Pakistan. In 1955 East Bengal was renamed East Pakistan. Dacca was then the legislative capital of Pakistani Bengal provincial region. The peoples of East Pakistan were mostly ethnic Bengalis who had a different language and culture to the people of western Pakistan. These differences eventually led to the Bangladesh Liberation War. On 16 December 1971, Bangladesh gained independence, with the help of allied forces against West Pakistani forces.
The East Bengal Legislative Assembly was the law-making body of the province of East Bengal. It was later renamed the East Pakistan Legislative Assembly and would be succeeded by the JatiyoSangshad in 1971.
After the birth of Bangladesh, Bangla replaced Urdu and English as the sole national and official language, and was the language taught in schools and used in business and government. The Bangla Academy was important in this change. In the 1980s, British-style education was maintained through private English-language institutions attended by upper class children. English continued to be taught in higher education and was offered as a subject for university degrees.At first, Arabic also lost ground in independent Bangladesh. This trend ended in the late 1970s, however, after Bangladesh strengthened its ties with Saudi Arabia and other oil-rich, Arabic-speaking countries. An unsuccessful attempt was made in 1983 to introduce Arabic as a required language in primary and secondary levels. Arabic iswidely studied in Madrassas and Islamic institutions around the country for better understanding of the Quran, Hadith and any other Islamic texts.
The main religion in Bangladesh is Islam (85%). Many people also follow Hinduism (14%). Most Muslims are Sunni. Islam was made the state religion in the 1980s. Christians make up less than 1% of the population.
There are six seasons in Bangladesh followed by the Bangla calendar year Summer, Rainy season, Autumn, Late autumn, Winter and Spring. Each season comprises two months, but some seasons flow into other seasons, while others are short. Actually, Bangladesh has three distinct seasons: the pre-monsoon hot season from March through May, rainy monsoon season which lasts from June through October, and a cool dry winter season from November through February. However, March may also be considered as the spring season, and the period from mid-October through mid-November may be called the autumn.
The pre-monsoon hot season is characterized by high temperature and occurrence of thunderstorms. April is the hottest month in the country when the mean temperature ranges from 27’C in the east and south to 31’C in the west-central part of the country. After April, increasing cloud-cover dampens temperature. Wind direction is variable in this season, especially during its early part. Rainfall accounts for 10 to 25 percent of the annual total, which is caused by thunderstorms.
Summer: mid-April to mid-June.
The rainy season: mid-June to mid-August.
Autumn: mid-August to mid-October.
Late autumn: mid-October to mid-December.
Winter: mid-December to mid-February.
The spring: mid-February to mid-April.
The seasons of Bangladesh play a vital role its economy, communication, trade and commerce, art and culture and, in fact, the entire lifestyle of the people.